August 4, 2020by admin

Predatory pricing iPleaders


In simple words, the market is not ruled by the single producer. Acompetitive market is a usual market that responds to the customers’ demands for goods and services. Competitive market as the name suggests creates competition in the market. The main purpose of creating competition in the market is to attract customers and create the worth of the businesses. Online retail boom has deeply influenced the pricing and distribution strategies of companies.

Market-driven pricing strategy is one of the most common practices that an exporter uses while setting the price of products. Under this approach, you keep your product’s price flexible and responsive to market conditions like demand, supply and inflation. Since most consumers always pick the right price, every business should set the right price based on solid results and valuable market insights. The core of good pricing is to learn the customer experience and adapt accordingly. Once a customer perceives value in your product or services, you must continue to offer the best value for their money.

Vaibhav Mishra vs. Sppin India Private Ltd. (known as ‘Shopee Case’), 2022

For instance, Entry barriers for setting food outlet are very low, hence the prices charged for edible food at these food outlet is nearly close to the marginal cost. An exporter uses this strategy to reimburse preliminary expenses. In this strategy, initially, a high price is charged and then the price is gradually reduced to increase market share and value. If you are dealing with commodities in established markets, this is a valuable strategy option. Monopoly is another type of market that is exactly the opposite of a competitive market.

As the demand of the first customers is satisfied and competition enters the market, the firm lowers the price to attract another, a more price-sensitive segment of the population. For different levels of accumulated production experience and for differentiated marketing offers. For different levels of accumulated production experience, and for differentiated marketing offers. Price skimming is a pricing technique in which a product’s or service’s price is initially set high and then gradually reduced as customers become more familiar with it. Ramsey pricing reduces to marginal cost pricing if all companies produce with constant returns to scale and must break even.

  • Cost-plus pricing is suitable for products that have low elastic demand.
  • It can be said that in many cases CCI has been instrumental in preventing anti-competitive and monopoly attitudes of big players by curbing predatory pricing and abuse of dominant position.
  • In perfect competition, prices are controlled by the market forces completely, without giving much ado about the other factors that may affect the same.
  • Inter-product price parity is substantially disturbed by new uses for some products and wide variations and rigidities in the production pattern between regions.

The importance of price sensitivity varies relative to other purchasing criteria; quality may rank higher than price, making consumers less susceptible to price sensitivity. The mark-ups of the Ramsey pricing over marginal cost are inversely related to the elasticity of demand if enterprises have growing returns to scale and must break even. Though penetration pricing is a short-term strategy, the ultimate goal is to foster long-term loyalty. The Commission, prima facie found that OLA held a dominant position in the market and therefore the DG was directed to investigate the matter. On the basis of analysis, DG concluded that OLA was not dominant in the relevant market as its share in the market had declined due to the entry of Uber and therefore the question of abuse does not arise.

Why do you need to refer a Financial Dictionary?

DPAG could increase its overall result by either raising prices to cover the additional costs of providing the service. By adding a markup to the cost of production, the cost-plus pricing model ensures that a business will make a profit on each sale. This can be especially useful for businesses operating in industries with highly variable costs, as it allows them to maintain a consistent profit margin despite fluctuations in the cost of production. Set a price that would generate a good amount of revenue and profit.


Processors carry on their business either on their own or on custom basis. Some processors employ agents to buy for them in the producing areas, store the produce and process it throughout the year on continuous basis. They also engage in advertising activity to create a demand for their processed products.

Predatory pricing

It helps the company in achieving a certain level of profit which is required to keep the liquidity intact. The direct and indirect costs, such as direct materials, direct labour, rent, and insurance, are accounted for by using this method. For example, you may decide you want to sell pies for 10% more than the ingredients cost to make them. The corporation then raises the price again, in the hopes of capturing the same degree of client demand as with its previous extremely low pricing. A firm may have various objectives and pricing contributes to its share in achieving such goals. Marketing experts view price as only one of the many important elements of the marketing mix.

competitive price meaning, therefore opined that there was no violation of Section 4 of the Competition Act, 2002. The object of the Act is to create an environment that shall protect the consumers from being exploited by the dominant player and also bring economic growth and progress to the country. With the onset of globalization and liberalization, the need was felt for improvisation in the existing Act. However since it did not work, the framers decided to design a law that was in tune with the development of the country.

It’s a form of pricing in which a fixed percentage is added to the cost of producing one unit of a product . When purchasing a more basic model, the price usually starts off lower and rises as the product’s quality improves. Simply said, the producer’s offerings are priced using a system that is fair to both the producer and the client.

Reasons your business should offer EMI

Also known as ‘Manufacturer-aligned pricing strategy’, this method sets the price of a product at the same level as quoted by competitors. Companies switch to competitive pricing when a product has been in the market for a long time and its pricing has already reached an equilibrium. New companies also use this strategy to de-risk their pricing decisions at the onset of the business. Objectively, the marketable surplus is the total quantity of arrivals in the market out of the new crop. Whether the marketed surplus increases with the increase in production has been under continual theoretical scrutiny. It has been argued that poor and subsistence farmers sell that part of the produce which is necessary to enable them to meet their cash obligations.

  • So, if the total cost of producing a toy was 10, the company would charge a price of 12 for that toy, making a profit of 2 per unit sold.
  • However, to first understand these, we must understand the concept of what is a perfect market, which can also be called perfect competition.
  • It dealt with appeals against the decisions of CCI and adjudicated compensation claims.

A pricing strategy will determine the value generated by a brand through its offering to customers. If your pricing strategy is well-researched, your competitors will also react to the decisions your business made. Whether you sell a product or service, the pricing strategy determines overall profitability. Every business has a set of financial goals, and pricing strategies can make or break your brand. Before you start pricing your products, it is important to define business goals aligned with your brand’s overall mission and vision. Do you want to increase customer loyalty or maximize your profits?

Therefore, technology provides both opportunities and challenges. Pricing is a strategic choice, and it will be partially influenced by environmental factors. With a rise in the prices of foodgrains, they sell a smaller quantity of foodgrains to get the cash they need, and vice versa.

In the case of predatory pricing, the competitor is said to have abused its dominant position by imposing unfair prices, lowering the prices, and restricting the production of goods or services in the market. Every sale not only would entail the loss of at least part of additional costs, but made no contribution towards covering the carrier’s capacity-maintenance costs i.e. variable cost. In the medium term, such a pricing policy is not in the DPAG’s own economic interest.

Higher the rice price in the market, more will be the supply of paddy to the market by the farmers. Inter-product price parity is substantially disturbed by new uses for some products and wide variations and rigidities in the production pattern between regions. An understanding and knowledge of the market structure is essential for identifying the imperfections in the performance of a market. Use psychological cues, like the power of suggestion, to influence customer behavior. Customers will most probably buy the one that is priced at $5.99. You can also provide offers and discounts whenever possible to attract more customers.

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Customers who are engaged in the premium model must feel that their money is investing in a service or good that is fundamentally superior. This frequently entails providing genuine enhancements to crucial components rather than merely additional bells and whistles. Price lining relies on establishing the idea that a product with a higher price tag must also be of superior quality. If you are a Financial Advisor, then it is extremely important to stay updated on the latest financial terms. We at update all the new terms used in personal finance in the Financial Dictionary.

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For example, the psychology of not using values ending in “0” or “1” in the price gives the customer the perception of saving. For example, $19.99 is viewed as a greater value over a product priced at an even $20. Value Bundling gives the customer the feeling of getting something. The percentage of the normal retail price attracts customers and, the greater the discount, the happier the customer would be. The main objective of the marketing strategy is pivotal to customer satisfaction, financial performance, and compliance.

Healthy margins in competitive market ability to charge the price. Business can avail profits when the cost of goods is less than its actual selling price. Competitive markets allow the business to make strict as well as ideal margins. A competitive market provides consumers with different options for similar products. This may even change the product price even with a small amount and may cause reduction in the sales. Summing up, in a perfect competitive market, multiple factors influence the market price and market supply.

The decision to sell products or services at zero or minimum profit allows you to sell as many units as possible. Since this type of strategic pricing depends on the volume of products being sold, it is used to gain a large market share. However, it also requires significant financial backing to absorb the losses due to this pricing and distribution strategy. The economic environment of the foreign or host country influences pricing decisions. It has a significant impact on the firm’s costs, determines demand potential for a particular product/service, in addition to the prices that local customers can afford and are willing to pay. For example, some products that are considered essential in western countries, are viewed as luxury items in my country , and most of the Asian countries.

In the corporate world, it means the economic enterprises compete with each other and secure customers for their products. The purpose is to kick the competitors thereby eliminating rivals. The Competition Commission of India eliminates such practices like predatory pricing treating it as an abuse of dominant position which is prohibited under the Act.

Change in the consumption pattern and tastes and preferences of consumers leads to specific or exclusive marketing practices followed by the companies to cater to the specific needs of that group. By this policy, a producer charges, for each product unit sold, only the addition to total cost resulting from materials and direct labour. Since demand is affected by factors like the number and size of competitors, the prospective buyers, their capacity and willingness to pay, their preference, etc. are taken into account while fixing the price. A company should undergo a step-wise process before selecting a final price. Accordingly, arrange the following steps of pricing-policy process to help ‘XYZ’ company to decide the final price of its product. Price sensitivity is commonly measured using the price elasticity of demand, which states that some consumers won’t pay more if a lower-priced option is available.

Therefore dominant position depends on the rival players and the strength they impose in the market. If there is only one enterprise in the market and there is no rival player that means there is no competition in the market and therefore there is no dominant position. Setting prices for goods or services of each revenue producing department so that together they optimize the firm’s net income. Value-based pricing is where the price is determined by the perceived value to the customer. With export pricing, you can cut unnecessary expenses in your supply chain, and also know about different opportunities about various distribution channels. The volume of sales and market demand depend on the right pricing policy.

Prices are tagged to the competition and profits are acceptable. In the long run, no single pricing strategy will always work best, and producers should be prepared to adjust to any opportunities or threats that may arise in the ever-changing market. In any developing economy, the producer’s surplus of agricultural product plays a significant role. This is the quantity which is actually made available to the non-producing population of the country.