July 27, 2021by admin

Gordon Growth Model Guide, Formula, Examples and More


It takes the expected value of the cash flows a company will generate in the future and calculates its net present value drawn from the concept of the time value of money . Myron Gordon proposed a dividend model that included some more assumptions than the Walter’s model. Gordon’s model increased the assumptions of Walter’s model and it reflected the evaluation of projects of those firms that have palpable tax and cost of capital greater than growth rate.

  • They could continue to retain the profits within the company, or they could pay out the profits to the owners of the firm in the form of dividends.
  • As you might be able to predict, this piece of good fortune must increase the share price.
  • Sources of Finance If the firm has finance sources, it will be easy to mobilise large finance.

Thus, the investment policy or the dividend policy or both can be sub-optimal. Even the best companies don’t always deliver bankable dividend growth. So, investors should use this model in conjunction with other methods of analysis in order to form a more informed opinion of a stock’s intrinsic value. Even then, using it will still be more art than science, given that the only thing certain about the future is uncertainty.

Gordan Growth Model Formula

If that individual should sell the stock in the future, the new owner would buy the remaining dividends. That will always be the case; a stock’s buyer is always buying the future dividend stream. The second component has two parts – the growth rate and the required rate of return.

rate of growth

All these factors affect the actual stock value; hence, the model does not provide a holistic picture of the intrinsic stock value. Dividend Per ShareDividends per share are calculated by dividing the total amount of dividends paid out by the company over a year by the total number of average shares held. The rate of return and cost of capital are constant. The firm is an all-equity firm; only the retained earnings are used to finance the investments, no external source of financing is used. Gordon’s theory also fails in eliminating the repercussion of ups and downs a share undergoes in the market.

Example of Calculation for the Gordon Growth Model

Moreover, it even considers the sensitivity of the valuation to changes occurring in the discount rate, which depicts a definite relationship between the two. Let’s pick another company and see if we can apply the dividend growth model and price the company’s stock with a different dividend history. —a continuous, never-ending annuity—and for this reason, the same formula can be used to price preferred stock.

To calculate the terminal value, a perpetual growth rate assumption is attached for the forecasted cash flows beyond the initial forecast period. If the calculated share price is less than the current market price, the shares are considered overvalued. If the share price calculated from the GGM is greater than the current market share price, the stock is undervalued and could be a potentially profitable investment. Learn about alternative methods for calculating intrinsic value, such as discounted cash flow modeling. In corporate finance, the DCF model is considered the most detailed and thus the most heavily relied on form of valuation for a business. To estimate the intrinsic value of a stock, the model takes the infinite series of dividends per share and discounts them back to the present using the required rate of return.

We note from the above graph companies like McDonald’s, Procter & Gamble, Kimberly Clark, PepsiCo, 3M, Coca-Cola, Johnson & Johnson, AT&T, and Walmart pay regular dividends. Therefore, we can use the Gordon growth model to value such companies. This rate of return is represented by and can be estimated using theCapital Asset Pricing Model or the Dividend Growth Model. However, this rate of return can be realized only when an investor sells his shares. The required rate of return can vary due to investor discretion. Such an expected dividend is mathematically represented by .

If the company retains earnings and uses those to produce lower returns than demanded by investors then dividends should be increased to avoid the share price falling. If the company can think of no good use for its earnings, it should distribute them to shareholders who can then decide for themselves what to do with them. The top line of the formula represents the dividend that will be paid at Time 1 and which will then grow at a rate g. Considered the simplest variation of the dividend discount model , the single-stage Gordon Growth Model assumes a company’s dividends continue to grow indefinitely at a constant rate.

What Are the Limitations of the Gordon Model?

Another variable that you must determine is the required rate of return. You can use similar investment opportunities to get an idea about the returns. It is imperative that you must convert these rates into decimals from percentage values before putting them to use. Although this point may be subtle, what we have just shown is that a stock’s price is the present value of its future dividend stream. When you sell the stock, the buyer purchases the remaining dividend stream.

  • The dividend used to calculate a price is the expected future payout and expected future dividend growth.
  • The reason is that the required rate of return of the stock remained at 17% and the growth rate of the dividends remained at 13.04%.
  • The company will pay $5.00 annual cash dividends per share for the next five years.
  • This provides an investor with a high degree of certainty about the amount of cash they can expect to receive.
  • Furthermore, investing comes down to risk versus reward.
  • Of course, this will again incur transaction costs and different tax treatment.

You can also take help from financial analysts and the projections they make. Of course, the estimated dividends would not be accurate, but the idea is to predict something closer to the actual future dividends. Cash Dividend • If the dividend is paid in the form of cash to the shareholders, it is called cash dividend. • It is paid periodically out the business concerns EAIT . • Cash dividends are common and popular types followed by majority of the business concerns. Stock Dividend • Stock dividend is paid in the form of the company stock due to raising of more finance.

Gordon Growth Model

If less cash is paid as dividends, liquidity might be better (though, of course, cash can still be consumed on the purchase of non-current assets). It cannot be emphasised enough that g is the future growth rate from Time 1 onwards. Of course, the growth rate isn’t guaranteed and the future growth rate is always an estimate. In the absence of other information, the future growth rate is assumed to be equal to the historic growth rate, but a change in dividend policy will undermine that assumption.

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I am not a licensed investment adviser, financial counselor, real estate agent, or tax professional. Thus, I’m not providing you individual advice in any of these areas. By now you know exactly how to calculate the intrinsic value of a stock using the Gordon Growth Model. And it’s simply good investing to estimate a stock’s value before buying it. Let me offer my opinion on how best to use the Gordon model.

Plus, I will identify 5 of the best dividend stocks that are good values right now. The Gordon Growth Model is used to calculate the intrinsic value of a dividend stock. My go-to dividend discount model is known as the Gordon Growth Model. However, this equilibrium is reached only if the amounts retained are reinvested at the cost of equity. Get instant access to video lessons taught by experienced investment bankers. Learn financial statement modeling, DCF, M&A, LBO, Comps and Excel shortcuts.


Directors might have been very open about a dividend policy but if investors do not share directors’ optimism about the future success of the company, the share price will be affected. This model examines the cause of dividend growth. Apart from raising more outside capital, expansion can only happen if some earnings are retained. If all earnings were distributed as dividend the company has no additional capital to invest, can acquire no more assets and cannot make higher profits. The Gordon Growth Model can be used to determine the relationship between growth rates, discount rates, and valuation. Despite the sensitivity of valuation to the shifts in the discount rate, the model still demonstrates a clear relation between valuation and return.

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According to the gordon model of dividend growth model, the shares are currently $10 overvalued in the market. The business does not avail of external financing for the rest of its life. Instead, the earnings of the business are reinvested after the payment of the dividend. We can also use Excel to set up a spreadsheet similar to the one in Figure 11.10 that will calculate this growth rate. You can easily find the company’s stock price in the provided template.

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” stands for expected dividend per share one year from the present time, “g” stands for rate of growth of dividends, and “k” represents the required return rate for the equity investor. The dividend discount model was developed under the assumption that the intrinsic value of a stock reflects the present value of all future cash flows generated by a security. At the same time, dividends are essentially the positive cash flows generated by a company and distributed to the shareholders. Finally, my dividend growth model forecast sets an expectation from which I can compare a company’s actual dividend increases. If future dividend increases are vastly different than my estimated dividend growth rate. Then it’s time to investigate and figure out what is going on.

Gordon’s dividend model is a progression of Walter’s model as it adds some more restrictions to the theory. Gordon’s model however rests on the same assumptions Walter’s theory proposes in the very first place. This dividend discount model may tell you a stock is always a good value. Note that actual stock prices will be as of the time of this article. So, be sure to check the stock’s price as of when you are reading this article for a fair comparison.

• It is also called as ‘Bird-in-the-hand’ theory that states that the current dividends are important in determining the value of the firm. • Gordon’s model is one of the most popular mathematical models to calculate the market value of the company using its dividend policy. It is assumed that firm’s investment opportunities are financed only through the retained earnings and no external financing viz.

Remember the days of the “Pepsi Challenge” advertising campaign? That’s when Pepsi was going toe to toe slugging it out for market share with rival Coca-Cola. If the actual price is lower, then the stock is a good value. If it’s higher, the Gordon Growth Model suggests the stock is overvalued. Just look up the actual price of XYZ Company before buying the stock online. I have already shown you the Gordon Growth Model formula.

The presumption of a steady and perpetual growth rate less than the cost of capital may not be reasonable. The model cannot be used for companies with irregular cash flows, dividend patterns, or financial leverage. The model does not account for market conditions or other non-dividend-paying factors like the company’s size, brand value, market perception, and local and geopolitical factors.

Financial LeverageFinancial Leverage Ratio measures the impact of debt on the Company’s overall profitability. Moreover, high & low ratio implies high & low fixed business investment cost, respectively. CAPMThe Capital Asset Pricing Model defines the expected return from a portfolio of various securities with varying degrees of risk. It also considers the volatility of a particular security in relation to the market. Constant Retention Ratio − The Retention ratio is constant and does not change with changing income or expenses.