February 2, 2023by admin

Natural Language Processing: Use Cases, Approaches, Tools

Like Facebook Page admin can access full transcripts of the bot’s conversations. If that would be the case then the admins could easily view the personal banking information of customers with is not correct. The Linguistic String Project-Medical Language Processor is one the large scale projects of NLP in the field of medicine [21, 53, 57, 71, 114].

What problems can machine learning solve?

  • Identifying Spam. Spam identification is one of the most basic applications of machine learning.
  • Making Product Recommendations.
  • Customer Segmentation.
  • Image & Video Recognition.
  • Fraudulent Transactions.
  • Demand Forecasting.
  • Virtual Personal Assistant.
  • Sentiment Analysis.

The second topic we explored was generalisation beyond the training data in low-resource scenarios. Given the setting of the Indaba, a natural focus was low-resource languages. The first question focused on whether it is necessary to develop specialised NLP tools for specific languages, or it is enough to work on general NLP. The main benefit of NLP is that it improves the way humans and computers communicate with each other. The most direct way to manipulate a computer is through code — the computer’s language. By enabling computers to understand human language, interacting with computers becomes much more intuitive for humans.

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Overload of information is the real thing in this digital age, and already our reach and access to knowledge and information exceeds our capacity to understand it. This trend is not slowing down, so an ability to summarize the data while keeping the meaning intact is highly required. Data availability   Jade finally argued that a big issue is that there are no datasets available for low-resource languages, such as languages spoken in Africa. If we create datasets and make them easily available, such as hosting them on openAFRICA, that would incentivize people and lower the barrier to entry.

nlp problems

Meaning, the AI virtual assistant could resolve customer issues on the first try 75 percent of the time. In a banking example, simple customer support requests such as resetting passwords, checking account balance, and finding your account routing number can all be handled by AI assistants. With this, call-center volumes and operating costs can be significantly reduced, as observed by the Australian Tax Office (ATO), a revenue collection agency. Chatbots, on the other hand, are designed to have extended conversations with people. It mimics chats in human-to-human conversations rather than focusing on a particular task. While there are many applications of NLP (as seen in the figure below), we’ll explore seven that are well-suited for business applications.

In-Context Learning, In Context

One primary concern is the risk of bias in NLP algorithms, which can lead to discrimination against certain groups if not appropriately addressed. Additionally, there is a risk of privacy violations and possible misuse of personal data. The need for multilingual natural language processing (NLP) grows more urgent as the world becomes more interconnected. However, using NLP to analyze languages other than English is challenging.

Where can the optimal solution to a NLP problem occur?

The optimal solution to NLP problems: May occur on the boundary or in the interior of the feasible region. NLP problems can be solved using: A special solution procedure called the generalized reduced gradient (GRG) algorithm.

Today, NLP tends to be based on turning natural language into machine language. But with time the technology matures – especially the AI component –the computer will get better at “understanding” the query and start to deliver answers rather than search results. Initially, the data chatbot will probably ask the question ‘how have revenues changed over the last three-quarters? But once it learns the semantic relations and inferences of the question, it will be able to automatically perform the filtering and formulation necessary to provide an intelligible answer, rather than simply showing you data. Artificial intelligence has become part of our everyday lives – Alexa and Siri, text and email autocorrect, customer service chatbots.

Lack of research and development

One of the most significant obstacles is ambiguity in language, where words and phrases can have multiple meanings, making it difficult for machines to interpret the text accurately. However, the complexity and ambiguity of human language pose significant challenges for NLP. Despite these hurdles, NLP continues to advance through machine learning and deep learning techniques, offering exciting prospects for the future of AI. Several companies in BI spaces are trying to get with the trend and trying hard to ensure that data becomes more friendly and easily accessible.

nlp problems

It may be less readable than the rule-based method but it has much more variability in the text, so might perform better in the search ranking. Extraction of company names in particular is not yet fully solved, but you can often get decent results from a transformer model. You can try extracting companies using NLP rules, and you’ll get decent precision (very little garbage returned), but very low recall (you’ll only extract maybe 20% of company names). So for more complicated entities, machine learning is the better way to go.

Relational semantics (semantics of individual sentences)

As discussed above, models are the product of their training data, so it is likely to reproduce any bias that already exists in the justice system. This calls into question the value of this particular algorithm, but also the use of algorithms for sentencing generally. One can see how a “value sensitive design” may lead to a very different approach. Statistical bias is defined as how the “expected value of the results differs from the true underlying quantitative parameter being estimated”. There are many types of bias in machine learning, but I’ll mostly be talking in terms of “historical” and “representation” bias.

  • This is rarely offered as part of the ‘process’, and keeps NLP ‘victims’ in a one-down position to the practitioner.
  • In this article, I will focus on issues in representation; who and what is being represented in data and development of NLP models, and how unequal representation leads to unequal allocation of the benefits of NLP technology.
  • The pipeline integrates modules for basic NLP processing as well as more advanced tasks such as cross-lingual named entity linking, semantic role labeling and time normalization.
  • We then discuss in detail the state of the art presenting the various applications of NLP, current trends, and challenges.
  • CapitalOne claims that Eno is First natural language SMS chatbot from a U.S. bank that allows customers to ask questions using natural language.
  • This idea that people can be devalued to manipulatable objects was the foundation of NLP in dating and sales applications .

Multi-document summarization and multi-document question answering are steps in this direction. Similarly, we can build on language models with improved memory and lifelong learning capabilities. AI machine learning NLP applications have been largely built for the most common, widely used languages. And it’s downright amazing at how accurate translation systems have become. However, many languages, especially those spoken by people with less access to technology often go overlooked and under processed.

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The good news is that NLP has made a huge leap from the periphery of machine learning to the forefront of the technology, meaning more attention to language and speech processing, faster pace of advancing and more innovation. The marriage of NLP techniques with Deep Learning metadialog.com has started to yield results — and can become the solution for the open problems. Program synthesis   Omoju argued that incorporating understanding is difficult as long as we do not understand the mechanisms that actually underly NLU and how to evaluate them.


Semantic ambiguity occurs when the meaning of words can be misinterpreted. Lexical level ambiguity refers to ambiguity of a single word that can have multiple assertions. Each of these levels can produce ambiguities that can be solved by the knowledge of the complete sentence.

Techniques and methods of natural language processing

The second objective of this paper focuses on the history, applications, and recent developments in the field of NLP. The third objective is to discuss datasets, approaches and evaluation metrics used in NLP. The relevant work done in the existing literature with their findings and some of the important applications and projects in NLP are also discussed in the paper. The last two objectives may serve as a literature survey for the readers already working in the NLP and relevant fields, and further can provide motivation to explore the fields mentioned in this paper. The process of finding all expressions that refer to the same entity in a text is called coreference resolution. It is an important step for a lot of higher-level NLP tasks that involve natural language understanding such as document summarization, question answering, and information extraction.

  • The ATO faces high call center volume during the start of the Australian financial year.
  • This likely has an impact on Wikipedia’s content, since 41% of all biographies nominated for deletion are about women, even though only 17% of all biographies are about women.
  • Stephan vehemently disagreed, reminding us that as ML and NLP practitioners, we typically tend to view problems in an information theoretic way, e.g. as maximizing the likelihood of our data or improving a benchmark.
  • NLP techniques open tons of opportunities for human-machine interactions that we’ve been exploring for decades.
  • The Centre d’Informatique Hospitaliere of the Hopital Cantonal de Geneve is working on an electronic archiving environment with NLP features [81, 119].
  • Noah Chomsky, one of the first linguists of twelfth century that started syntactic theories, marked a unique position in the field of theoretical linguistics because he revolutionized the area of syntax (Chomsky, 1965) [23].

Using linguistics, statistics, and machine learning, computers not only derive meaning from what’s said or written, they can also catch contextual nuances and a person’s intent and sentiment in the same way humans do. Generally, machine learning models, particularly deep learning models, do better with more data. Al. (2009) explain that simple models trained on large datasets did better on translation tasks than more complex probabilistic models that were fit to smaller datasets. Al. (2017) revisited the idea of the scalability of machine learning in 2017, showing that performance on vision tasks increased logarithmically with the amount of examples provided. The accuracy and efficiency of natural language processing technology have made sentiment analysis more accessible than ever, allowing businesses to stay ahead of the curve in today’s competitive market. One approach to reducing ambiguity in NLP is machine learning techniques that improve accuracy over time.


This can make it difficult for machines to understand or generate natural language accurately. Despite these challenges, advancements in machine learning algorithms and chatbot technology have opened up numerous opportunities for NLP in various domains. Machine learning requires A LOT of data to function to its outer limits – billions of pieces of training data. That said, data (and human language!) is only growing by the day, as are new machine learning techniques and custom algorithms. All of the problems above will require more research and new techniques in order to improve on them.

nlp problems

But their article calls into question what perspectives are being baked into these large datasets. The past few decades, however, have seen a resurgence in interest and technological leaps. Much of the recent excitement in NLP has revolved around transformer-based architectures, which dominate task leaderboards. However, the question of practical applications is still worth asking as there’s some concern about what these https://www.metadialog.com/blog/problems-in-nlp/ models are really learning. A study in 2019 used BERT to address the particularly difficult challenge of argument comprehension, where the model has to determine whether a claim is valid based on a set of facts. BERT achieved state-of-the-art performance, but on further examination it was found that the model was exploiting particular clues in the language that had nothing to do with the argument’s “reasoning”.

nlp problems